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The ap us history exam will be given may 18, i hope we all have unit 2 test on monday, 30 multiple choice and 1 essay question. For that, nondestructive tests NDT have been widely used Raberg et al. Visual analysis as a function of phytosanitary conditions of the materials is one of the most common techniques applied by the scientific community.
Nevertheless, this technique is subjective and the result can be unreliable. Thus, other quantitative data should be used to support this analysis Raberg et al. Mass loss is the main parameter to characterize wood exposed to field tests Curling et al. Nevertheless, Venalainen et al. Selection and preparation of material. From each tree, the first log with 1,5 m length was cut and a central plank with 8 cm thickness was sawn.
We prepared eight hundred and eighty-eight samples measuring 1 cm x 1 cm x 20 cm from near to pith juvenile wood and near to bark mature wood. All the samples were organized in blocks in a vertical position with half of their length below the soil. The samples and the blocks were placed at 10 cm and 30 cm distances from each other, respectively Figure 1. Figure 1. Schematic of the samples in the field tests. The samples were collected twelve times every 45 days in a total of days of exposure.
Mass loss, density and equilibrium moisture content. We determined the mass loss and the changes in the density of wood samples after the exposure to the field tests according to a procedure described by Mattos et al. We performed three measurements in the critical zone of the wood samples considering both radial and tangential sections. Phytosanitary conditions of each samples were determined considering their color and the presence of defects such as cracking, rot and mold.
Table 1. No significance of type of field and exposure time in density, and no significance of type of field in moisture content indicate that these physical properties are not relevant to characterize the decay of the samples exposed to the field tests. Regarding from the colorimetric parameters, changes to wood color are not dependent on the anatomical section when compared within the variables analyzed Table 1. This corroborates with previous studies Huang et al. Therefore, the anatomical direction variable can be rejected on a detailed analysis of changes to the color of decayed wood.click here
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Physical parameters were analyzed based on multi-factor ANOVA results, wherein three factors - Specie, Type of wood and Type of field - more influenced these parameters. Physical characterization. The degree of mass loss increased as a function of exposure time. On the other hand, density and moisture content parameters decreased as a function of exposure time Figure 2.
This information indicates that the exposure time proposed in this study was suitable.
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Figure 2. Variation of mass loss, density and moisture content against exposure time to the field test. In descending order, decay resistance of woods as a function of mass loss was: E. This result is different from information reported by AS Australian Standard , for the exposure conditions in Australia.
Such discrepancy can be related to the levels of physiological activities of trees planted in Brazil and Australia, since both countries have distinct edaphoclimatic conditions Marsden et al. Therefore, Brazilian climate characteristics provide favorable conditions for the fast growth of eucalypts trees and, consequently, for a higher proportion of sapwood, which is less resistant than heartwood Moya et al.
The climatic conditions of exposure to the field test in this study is another aspect that should be considered, since the temperature and relative humidity of air influence significantly the physiological activity of fungi Brischke et al. Mature wood was more durable than juvenile wood. According to Latorraca et al. Concerning the exposure location, the flooded site provided the most favorable conditions to wood degradation, since the two other types of sites outdoor and forest canopy did not present considerable differences in relation to their degree of mass loss.
We presume that result is due to the higher moisture content in the flooded site, which improves the physiological activity of xylophagous agents. The two most durable woods in this study E. Nevertheless, in contrast with the behavior of density and moisture content, the degree of mass loss was different between E.
Therefore, we observed that the variation of density and moisture content indicates that these properties are not reliable alternatives to control the wood deterioration in a field test. However, in this study, the moisture content was determined in samples dried in a climatic chamber. Thus, the moisture content informed in this manuscript not represents the moisture levels of the samples during the field tests. Brischke et al. Color evaluation. All the colorimetric parameters decreased until days of exposure, followed by a stabilization of the wood color Figure 4.
From 45 days of exposure, treatment samples presented a considerable color difference to the unaided eye when compared to the control samples Cui et al. The color of natural wood can vary due to its extractives, such as fatty acids and steroids, an aspect that can be considered for heartwood and sapwood, and well as juvenile and mature wood Prinisha , Moya et al. Outdoor exposure of wood results in initial color changes due to the oxidation of chromophore groups of lignin.
This oxidation occurs because these chromophore groups absorb electromagnetic waves from solar radiation with wavelengths in the UV and visible region George et al. Afterwards, drying gradients of wood are responsible for surface cracking that improve the susceptibility of attack by xylophagous agents Evans et al.
Thus, colonization of these fungi significantly influences the wood color Hernandez The color of mature wood was more stable than the color of juvenile wood. That possibly occurs due to the oxidation reactions and depolymerization of extractives in the formation of heartwood Moya et al. Regarding the type of site, exposure to the flooded site resulted in less color changes than those verified in both forest canopy and outdoor sites. That behavior is not in accordance with the degree of mass loss and can be atributted to great presence of white-rot in the samples, although, in general, traces of soft-rot fungi, brown-rot fungi and white-rot fung are observed in the samples exposed in all types of fields.
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As observed for mass loss, color changes after exposure to field tests are significantly related to the type of fungi presented in the substrate. Therefore, correlations between mass loss and color parameters of wood in real conditions are subjective, sincethe same xylophagous agents are not always responsible for the variation of these characteristics.
Figure 3. Figure 4. We performed a comparison between ratings of visual analysis and average values of all the technological properties characterized in this study. With the exception of density, all the properties presented synergetic results Table 2. Table 2. Average values of physical properties as a function of visual durability ratings.
Standard deviation in parentheses. The absence of a relationship between density and visual analyzes can be attributed to the same evidence pointed out in the mass loss explanation. However, correlations between visual analyzes and density of wood in real conditions are subjective because not always the same xylophagous agent is responsible for the variation of these characteristics. Mass loss of samples without attack grade 0 and with slight attack grade 1 did not differ statistically. We observed a wood darkening and a decrease of red tones with increases to the degree of deterioration until the moderate level of attack.
From the moderate level of attack onwards, these colorimetric parameters did not differ significantly.